The term refers loosely to parts of Italy that the Lombards (qq.v.) ruled. More specifically, it refers to the Byzantine theme (q.v.) of the same name that was organized by the late ninth century. It extended along the coast of southeast Italy and included the Lombard principalities of Benevento, Capua, and Salerno (qq.v.) and the non-Lombard city-states of Amalfi, Naples, and Gaeta (qq.v.).

Historical Dictionary of Byzantium . .

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